Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) was an author, journalist and political activist. The most famous is the satirical novel by Gulliver's Travel and the satirical essay on Irish Hunger, "The Impossible Proposal". "Gulliver's Travels" is the book of fantasy, satire and political allegory, and I liked it in every age group. He wrote Gulliver's Travels in 1725 and was published in 1726. The book has been a success in the entire British Empire and has earned the author an excellent author and commentator. In this book, the Gulliver surgeon, a commercial ship's surgeon, comes to four imaginary countries. So the book is divided into four parts. His first trip to Lilliput, whose inhabitants are about six inches tall. His second visit is Brobdingnag, the country of giants. His third visit to the islands of Laputa and Legedo, inhabited by philosophers and scholars who love music and mathematics. His most recent visit is the land of Honyhnhnms and Yahoos. Rational and Civilized Horses, and Yahoos Unreasonable and Animaly Wholly Dirty
Before we talk about the symbols of Gulliver's Travel, we need to know something about the "symbol" literary expression. The word "Symbol" comes from the late Latin word: "Symbolum" means token, sign or emblem. Indeed, the ornament of literature. The author uses it to reveal all hidden things or philosophy honestly to readers because they do not face difficulties to understand. If such a thing happened, work would not be interesting and useful in representing age. Obviously, Jonathan Swift uses symbols to spread his ideas to readers by making it easier. All in all, we can say that a symbol means something else. Everything in Gulliver's Travel is something else because it is written for the criticism of contemporary philosophies and customs. Almost every person in this book is either a historical figure or an idea.
Let's look at the symbols used in Gulliver's Travel.
In the first book, Swift announces the visit of Gulliver Lilliputians, the six-inch inhabitants. They are the symbol of the extraordinary pride of mankind. The author ironically represents the competition. You find small creatures with a small population, but the hiding place and the conspiracy stock; they still think they are great. Gulliver lies under the glamor of their glory and becomes futile because of the threat of punishment, although the competition has no real physical strength. Gulliver learns more about the culture of Lilliputians and the great difference between body and race. The British government is expressing satire. Gulliver notes that Lilliput's government officials are choosing their rope-like skills, which he knows as arbitrary and ridiculous. It symbolizes the political nomination in England, which is arbitrary. The difference in size represents the importance of physical strength. Gulliver can crush the Lilliputs, carelessly, but does not notice their own insignificance, which symbolizes their little girl. Gulliveret is tied up and believed to dominate. Swift symbolizes humanity's empty claim of power and significance.
Swift is very cautious about satire and the use of symbols. The articles written by Gulliver on the acquisition of freedom symbolize meaningless and self-contradictory paper in a formal and independent language, because Gulliver is a symbol of great power and power. You can violate all your bonds for your own safety. The story of the conflict between Lilliput and Blefuscu is ridiculous. High Heels and Low Heels symbolize whigs and Tories of English policies. Lilliput and Blefuscu are symbolized by England and France. The violent conflict between the great Endians and small endiots symbolizes Protestant reformation and the centuries-old warfare of Catholics and Protestants. So European history is a series of brutal wars as meaningless and arbitrary disagreements. The conflict of "how the egg is picked up by a man" is a symbol of whim and triviality. It seems ridiculous and unreasonable to conclude that there is no right or wrong way to worship. Swift suggests that the Christian Bible can be interpreted in various ways. It is ridiculous that people can fight how to interpret when someone is uncertain that their interpretation is correct and others are wrong.
Emperor Liliput is a symbol of tyranny, cruelty and corruption. the unmistakable symbol of bad governance. This is also a bite satirist George I, the English King (between 1714 and 1727), during many of Swift's career. He does not like the king. Empress Lilliputai claims Anne's queen who has prevented Swift from advancing in the English Church after she has been charged with some of her former satire. Gulliver's urine in the quarter is Swift's work "The Tale of a Tub". The disagreement of Emperor Gulliver's resemblance to Queen Anne's critique of Swift's work and his ambitions to limit his prospects in the English Church. In fact, it symbolizes the ability to control Lilliput in its urine. This illustrates the importance of physical strength. Gulliver does not respect the Emperor's orders to destroy the fleet of Blefuscu and sign his sense of responsibility for every being. Gulliver is in a position to change Liliputa's society forever. The reference to the army between Lilliput and Blefuscu symbolizes patriotic glories so proudly in the army. The Lilliput Emperor's call for Gulliver to serve as a kind of dynamic triumph for the troops to pass is a pathetic reminder that their grandparents are extremely stupid. The war with Blefuscu is the symbol of absurdity that comes from the corrupt vanity. That is why Lilliputians symbolize lost human pride and indicate that Gulliver can not properly diagnose. [II. II. Könyv] Jonathan Swift communicates Gulliver's visit to the island of giants. Walking here does not pose a threat to the Borbing Emperor as he did at his visit to Lilliput because the situation is in reverse. Borbing people represent the English way. After a short time as a functionary, Gulliver was rescued by the king and the queen, and he enjoys great comfort in court. He spent a lot of time learning the language and conversing with the king in England. The king looks decent, merciful ruler, very sympathetic and human. The Borbdingnagians symbolize the private, personal, and physical side of people when they are closely scrutinized. In Lilliputians Gulliver symbolizes divine power, but here is the symbol of the servant and the puppet to perform various tricks for viewers. Borbadenes do not represent negative human properties. His borbing behavior is different and civilized than the Gulliver. The Queen's good intentions go to Gulliver and find common sense views. Slavery is virtual, which symbolizes the fundamental humanity of the Borbing Nights. So it is similar for Europeans who will be happy to jump quickly when the opportunity arises. He was a golden puppet in their hands and got a comfortable crib for rats.
In this book, we find a dwarf who is unable to acquire power that is usually accompanied by a large physical size, but he gets the distinctive character that symbolizes the politics of those who do not try to exercise power physically, but are exactly immoral and ordinary discriminating through their ability. Ladies and their flaws symbolize imperfection as they conduct thorough scrutiny. Gulliver's microscopic view of flies and flesh symbolizes the discovery of the microscope. In the late 17th century, it was the first edition of books that contained magnified images. Such microscopic views are known for the complexity and error levels. The small size of Europeans in their eyes is justified by their moral weaknesses. The offer of Gulliver gunshot means the imperfection of the British. The rejection of the king symbolizes this race, much more humane than the other races. This means minimizing the crime in this society as much as possible. Although this race is now a huge moral achievement, it is not perfect yet.
Gulliver's third visit is Lupta, which shows Swift's attack on science and abstract knowledge. Laputa is a symbol of the stupidity of theoretical science not related to human life. During his trip, his ship was attacked by pirates. He talked to them in the Netherlands, but he later symbolized Swift's religious faith for the heathen worship of Christianity. In this visit, performance is achieved not by physical size, but by technology. The floating island is a scary weapon, and the allegorical image is a symbol of government and people. In this visit, he argues that the rigid devotion of the Laputa symbolizes humanity as abstract theory, language, architecture and geography. Scientists have committed themselves to subtract the sun rays from the cucumber and withdraw the droppings into the food and turn the ice on pistol. The architect has pledged to design a way to build houses from the roof, which symbolizes the impossibility and intensity that founded science society in 1660. Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton were all members of the royal society. His main task was to use the new techniques of science for the development of craftsmen, etc. The theoretician has ruined the country, forcing people to follow their fresh and utterly useless methods.
Gulliver's escape to Glubbdubdrib symbolizes Swift's attempt to abstract learning. All in all, ancient Greeks and Romans were considered virtuous, where Europeans were slightly degenerated. Apart from the fact that Luggnagg Struldburgs symbolize human desires. They seek eternal life and the primacy of old age. In fact, the wisdom of old age can be used to support humanity, but the immortal Struldburgs are only more prejudicial and selfish. The vacuity of Struldbrugs' immense sadness and Gulliver's desire for wealth means that Swift condemns such smug goals as the state of small minds that do not conform to good society.  Jonathan Swift represents Gulliver's fourth journey to Honyhnhnms as the ideal of rational existence. Here, man has to be a yahoo and be subjected to animals. This means that animals are civilized or patterned citizens. Their society is safe from crime, poverty, disagreement and unhappiness. They do not know passion, joy, and ecstatic love. Honyhnhns is not sacred writing as the criterion of correct action. They do not use force, they only use strong incentives. The whole grief of Gulliver suggests that it has a greater impact than any other society he has visited.
It is indeed a bitter criticism of human beings. Jonathan Swift chose humanity for all three visits, but he chose animals here. Indeed, Honyhnhnm represents the false and seductive arrogance of man in the power of intelligence. Gulliver canyon to gather the yahoo's skin to escape the island's fast cynicism offered to mankind. If we continue the debate, the cynical or satirical main weapon is to improve humanity, since it is reformer in the heart of every satyrist.
Indeed, this book's gaze is in hazelnuts. His work requires more attention and more time. A great treasure of the age involved. They admitted that his criticism was fast and hard, but he did not use the people, but he corrected them by infuriating their madness.